How Volcanoes Froze the Earth (Twice)

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  • Published on Jul 17, 2019
  • Over 600 million years ago, sheets of ice coated our planet on both land and sea. How did this happen? And most importantly for us, why did the planet eventually thaw again? The evidence for Snowball Earth is written on every continent today.
    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Franz Anthony from Studio 252mya for their wonderful illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/
    Special thanks to Judy Pu for answering our questions about Snowball Earth.
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: ru-clip.net/user/pbsdigitalstudios
    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan
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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1dRTf9IcH_1vA5SfEKbHhgwbYC6XL5mGImebexd_3ihk/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science & TechnologyScience & Technology

Comments • 1 371

  • Warpmine
    Warpmine Day ago

    CO2 is a trace gas and would never affect anything this person says other than plant growth. Look for another boogeyman like solar hibernation, axis tilt and volcanic activity spewing huge amounts of matter(Mt. St. Helens) Krakatoa which will dampen the sunlight before hitting the Earth's surface. Bottom line is this, many conditions need to line up before an extended ice age happens.

    Remember this, the planet's orbit is elliptical and the our planet wobbles around the sun.

  • moebigsley1976
    moebigsley1976 Day ago

    The methods they come up with to find the evidence is quite genius.

  • Kevin Thrun
    Kevin Thrun Day ago

    Don't they have a record that we had a snowball earth 3 times?

  • Bleikr Sound
    Bleikr Sound 5 days ago

    Request for Eons - would like to see a segment about the geologic age when Earth became inundated with iron - some call the 'rusting of the planet'.
    - Thanks!

  • Zeebra237
    Zeebra237 5 days ago

    Volcanoes erupt and spew ash which blocks the sun.
    Google this: "1816 year without a summer."

  • David Jack
    David Jack 5 days ago

    I have a crush on the girl speaking in this video

  • Chris
    Chris 6 days ago

    I truly hate the geographical terms. They pick long and difficult names for who knows what reason.

  • AlessioAndres
    AlessioAndres 7 days ago

    The best narrator on this channel! I would pay you to read to me haha^^ Thank you :*

  • Scooter Johansen
    Scooter Johansen 10 days ago

    Goodness volcanoes are not erupting ATM .

  • A Simple Dog
    A Simple Dog 14 days ago

    "we still have glaciers today!" not for long were entering fireball earth era!!!

  • Peter theoneandonly
    Peter theoneandonly 14 days ago

    Who is Steve!

  • Thornback
    Thornback 15 days ago

    can you please also use the metric system, it broadens your material to the rest of the world and gives users of the imperial system reference and knowledge of the universal scale. There is no good reason to not use both scales.

  • Gary Chynne
    Gary Chynne 15 days ago

    thanks

  • Ace Anthony Referiza
    Ace Anthony Referiza 20 days ago

    Is it just me or does it feel like a lot of the terms she is using doesn't sound scientific enough?

  • Bert Jongerden
    Bert Jongerden 21 day ago +1

    Dammit vulcanoes you did it again!

  • Paul Dub
    Paul Dub 23 days ago +1

    Clear and concise explaining thanks

  • jeremy Mizer
    jeremy Mizer 24 days ago +1

    Finally PBS is on a platform that will pay them for their amazing work

  • Andy Smith
    Andy Smith 24 days ago

    Lasts 15 million years,what does that even mean

  • Max Luv
    Max Luv 25 days ago

    Why not tell the people the truth?

  • Max Luv
    Max Luv 25 days ago

    There was a tectonic plate movement,in witch caused masses amounts of volcanoes to erupt,putting a lot heat as well,causing the earth to heat up,in the center of our planet,causing the cold to go down to the poles & flash freeze the poles,just like in Antarctica is today,with frozen Tsunamis waves over it & all the sort in the sky,blanket the earth & cooled it down,causing the ice age & when the sort,cleared enough,to let the sun shine though,it started melting the ice back,just like what there doing now,there spraying the sky's around the world,in as many countries as they can,it cools down the center of our planet & causes the heat,to go to the poles & melt the poles,

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      Interesting. Now let's get back to the real science.

  • Abstract Russian
    Abstract Russian 26 days ago

    Are you ready kids?
    Aye-aye captain.
    I can't hear you...
    Aye-aye captain!
    Ohhhhhh! Who lives in a pineapple under the sea?

  • Ariel Manzanares-Scisney

    WHY was the Sun 7% dimmer???

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      You have the question back to front. It should be - what has caused the sun to get brighter.

  • Shamir George
    Shamir George Month ago

    Isn't this supposed to be taught at universities? Reminds of me of TOEFL exams.

  • 45 ACP
    45 ACP Month ago

    Man, scientists are dumb. Volcanos aren't cold.

    • 45 ACP
      45 ACP 18 days ago

      @Bob Trenwith Nani?

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 18 days ago

      @45 ACP Be careful dear. An uneducated, low-life conservative would take that as an invitation.

    • 45 ACP
      45 ACP 18 days ago

      @Bob Trenwith I'm actually a 5 year old girl sir, and my parents aren't home

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      @45 ACP You seem to be about 6 years old. An adult actually says something when they speak. Perhaps you would care to point out where in the video they claimed that volcanoes are cold. Or are you going to keep playing kiddy games?

    • 45 ACP
      45 ACP 19 days ago

      @Bob Trenwith wait, you commented?

  • Jamie Owns
    Jamie Owns Month ago

    I wonder what the shape the continents will take in 250 million years. Is continental shift fast or slow? or a mix?

  • Jamie Owns
    Jamie Owns Month ago

    Honestly to find out the truth it needs Chemistry, Biology, Astrophysics and Geology to come together. It's the only way to find out the truth. Space events could easily trigger an ice age and were believed to do so million or so years ago. Also, the equator is funny. Because it's very mixed. Sure it's warm but you also got large tropics. And the hottest place on earth is California. Which is the worst place to put a huge city. With unrestricted growth. No wonder it gets forest fires it's been stealing it's water from the land for decades. it ran the underground water dry I believe. And is stealing water from ranchers up north. transporting it to the city. Then you got Las Vegas another desert city....
    That sun idea makes sense. Because in a billion years today it will be 10% brighter. and will be able to boil our oceans. And some think that it may be able to split the molecular bonds of h20. And the Hydrogen will escape into space. Kinda interesting.

  • Eric Zetterlund
    Eric Zetterlund Month ago

    Don't leave me hanging like that! How did the sponges do it!???

  • Julia Naylor
    Julia Naylor Month ago

    Breaking up is hard to do, stop naming Neil Sedaka song.😂

  • Julia Naylor
    Julia Naylor Month ago

    Snowball Earth sounds like a giant cocktail.😂

  • redemption
    redemption Month ago

    "Snowball earth" don't you mean Hoth?

  • blue smurff
    blue smurff Month ago +2

    This made me appreciate how incredible it is for life to exist on earth

  • Roberto
    Roberto Month ago

    The real question is how earth defrost😜

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      She answers that from about 8:40.

    • Trueantitheist
      Trueantitheist Month ago

      The one way we're heating it today global warming.

  • arno kosterman
    arno kosterman Month ago

    As we clossing in to the sun
    Things got heat up😍💜
    To hold the solarsystem together we have manivestet a amptines for oll the energi to hold on en go treu energy goos in the direction of the proton of this system.
    Metterstate travles inwards so the eurth presence the meterstate there fore we are going inwardts😍

    • arno kosterman
      arno kosterman 18 days ago

      Yes i have dislectia en i have manige a way to ride but coust a lots of energys😀
      I'm happy with that i ride at oll💟
      I can ride sometime 5 minn sometimes 25 minn, if i go onn. our, start every word ........ than mi body eats mi body (autoimune reaction) it is hard to see oll en not to be able to share💟
      Now i'm able to share , i progressing treu live en the wish to.
      En that is way words come out in the wrong spelling.😄
      But they are in the right contexct of the information that i shared. because: i see there is a need for it our the other wish to understand it💟🙃
      When some ones don't understand thay kan olways ask lile you dit jesterday 😃
      That you give the words back for me to ride it in the correct order when i'm able to🤗💕
      I'm not here to teach or leurn words spelling i'm here to profide the needs of understanding of creations😍💟 in the totalety.💟
      As i surve mi soul en oll souls to reseave the peaces so every one can understand for theme selfs💟🌀💟
      Thank you dear soul 💟 love you en en every one🤗💟♾💟

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      @arno kosterman It is like you are speaking a foreign language. It is even impossible to decipher the meaning of that 7-word sentence.

    • arno kosterman
      arno kosterman 19 days ago

      @Bob Trenwith words count en manny as in how much🍀

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      @arno kosterman You are still incomprehensible. What is "wurths"? What is "counds"? Who is "Manny"? Have you ever considered using Google translate?

    • arno kosterman
      arno kosterman 19 days ago

      There is olways some one,🤗 who thinks the wurths counds for what thay say😃
      Manny sees wat you say with the contex wat has been shared💜🌀 thank you fore showing😍🙌💟

  • Ray Johnson
    Ray Johnson Month ago

    Hoth. They are naming Hoth not Earth

  • John Beauchamp
    John Beauchamp Month ago

    So can we just grind up a bunch of basalt and dump it into the ocean to sequester CO2 and undo climate change?

    • Trueantitheist
      Trueantitheist Month ago +1

      Sure if you're willing to wait a couple dozen million years.

  • Hajger89
    Hajger89 Month ago

    I bet Icelanders would like it there.

  • Chad Coley
    Chad Coley Month ago

    What if human lead climate change leads to another snowball earth era hahahahaha

  • Sweet Williams
    Sweet Williams Month ago

    lowkey the spokes lady is kinda hot. Super interesting information in these pbs videos too, kinda addicted

  • Adam Brown
    Adam Brown Month ago

    Man, if only those sponges had banded together to stop climate change before the glaciers melted and flooded everything. How ever could life survive with temperatures over 40F?

  • Sophie Shenkal
    Sophie Shenkal Month ago +3

    I love love love this channel! It reminds me of just how special, beautiful, and one-of-a-kind our planet is. Thank you PSB Eons

  • Wendell Clayton
    Wendell Clayton Month ago

    C02 cools the earth .

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      @Wendell Clayton
      We are currently in an ice age. Did you mean "last glacial period" which ended about 10000 years ago, when CO2 levels were at about 180 ppm?

    • Wendell Clayton
      Wendell Clayton 19 days ago

      See last ice age .

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      Interesting. Now excuse me while I return to the *real* science.

  • Pheunith: Psychic-Water Type

    Hmm so volcanoes are to blame for the ice age sequels. We must act on this to prevent more tragedies

  • jediflip
    jediflip 2 months ago

    Your knees. . . .

  • Eric Kort
    Eric Kort 2 months ago

    magnetic reverals cauase ice ages

  • Franky dyson
    Franky dyson 2 months ago +1

    Let’s have a video on the sun! The suns influence on climate. How the sun has caused global catastrophe!!

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      The sun has never caused global catastrophe.

  • Simon Jäkle
    Simon Jäkle 2 months ago +1

    What about the earth being (almost) entirely covered in ice 2 billion years ago?
    Recent astronomical studies indicate that there was dust descending to the surface during millions of years about 600 or less million years ago possibly being caused by two huge "asteroids" (perhaps a L-chondrite and a comet-like object) that must have collided "near earth". That could correlate with the volcano theory of yours. In earths atmosphere, ice particels calmen the temperature while dirty dust often slowens the dissapearing of sun energy, so the warmth lasts longer

  • EBFilmsMan
    EBFilmsMan 2 months ago +1

    Never date a geologist. They take everything for granite.

  • Adam C.
    Adam C. 2 months ago +1

    But now human activity is to blame for climate change? Why? Please tell me why if all of these natural forces did it before.

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      How did humans unleash a nuclear explosion in 1945 at Hiroshima when only natural forces had done it before?
      See how dumb your question is?

  • Jonathan Williams
    Jonathan Williams 2 months ago +1

    If the earth can be covered in solid water it can be covered in liquid water

  • Kim Marie
    Kim Marie 2 months ago +3

    No mention of a huge climate affect is earths orbit and tilt!

    • Bob Trenwith
      Bob Trenwith 19 days ago

      Why would they mention this when it has never caused a Snowball Earth?

  • Jamaar Jones
    Jamaar Jones 2 months ago +2

    Lots of suggested events...

  • JUJU GLONL
    JUJU GLONL 2 months ago

    If they say humans been here for millions of years like how they say the earth evolved over millions of years wouldn’t you think we would transition to living inside of the earth like agartha ?

    • Jeremy Ripton
      Jeremy Ripton Month ago

      We've been around as Homo Sapiens for about 300,000 years....not.millions.

  • Andy C
    Andy C 2 months ago +1

    I'm a sponge for snowball earth literature, your presentation was really amazing. thanks! kinda making me like PBS again?

  • Bill Smith
    Bill Smith 2 months ago +1

    What about the fact that the magnetic pole change its Direction one occasion? Could that affect the theory? And does this change the entire thesis

    • Franky dyson
      Franky dyson 2 months ago

      Bill Smith Im glad someone has a intellectual thought process, I was starting to give up hope. Thanks for the wonderful words theory’ and thesis... not fact!

  • Linear Wolf
    Linear Wolf 2 months ago +1

    Volcanoes: Lets try something different........

  • Silas Ash
    Silas Ash 2 months ago +3

    It's amazing we're here at all

  • UKinQ8 Gaming
    UKinQ8 Gaming 2 months ago

    Anyone else get a headache from the high pitch voice?

  • Meekseek
    Meekseek 2 months ago

    Selling merchandise so that people can advertize them. They then run their consumers are killing the earth, UN climate change agenda.

  • Neal Palmer
    Neal Palmer 2 months ago

    My town is covered with ice heads

  • KingJes bro
    KingJes bro 2 months ago

    Your voice makes me sleepy 😴